Dyslexia is not just a severe reading disorder characterized by reversals. It is a syndrome, meaning that it shows many and varied reading and non-reading symptoms such as:
* Memory instability for letters, words, numbers
* A tendency to skip over or scramble letters, words, and sentences
* A poor, slow reading ability prone to compensatory head
tilting, finger pointing and rapid fatigue
* Reversals of letters such as b and d, words such as saw and was, and
numbers such as 6 and 9 or 16 and 61* Letter and word blurring, doubling, movement, scrambling, omission,
insertion, size change , etc.
* Poor concentration, distractibility, light sensitivity (photophobia), delayed visual and phonetic processing, etc.
* Messy, poorly angulated, or drifting handwriting prone to size,
spacing, and letter-sequencing errors.
SPELLING, MATH, MEMORY, AND GRAMMAR
* Difficulties remembering spelling, grammar, math, names, dates, and
lists , or sequences such as the alphabet, the days of the week and
months of the year, and directions.
* Speech disorders such as slurring, stuttering, minor articulation
errors, poor word recall, and auditory-input and motor-output speech
* Right/left and related directional uncertainty.
* Delay in learning to tell time.
CONCENTRATION AND ACTIVITY
* Impaired concentration, distractibility, hyperactivity, or
BEHAVIOR, TEMPER, OR IMPULSE DISTUBANCES
BALANCE AND COORDINATION
* Difficulties with balance and coordination functions, i.e. walking,
running, skipping, hopping, tying shoelaces, and buttoning buttons.
OTHER RELATED ISSUES
* Difficulties with headaches, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, motion
sickness, abdominal complaints, excessive sweating, and bed-wetting
* Feeling stupid, ugly, incompetent, brainless.
* Fears of the dark, heights, getting lost, going to school
* Fear or the avoidance of various balance, coordination, sports, and
* Mood disturbances.
* Obsessions and compulsions.
Because dyslexia is often mistakenly viewed as a severe reading
impairment rather than a syndrome of the above mentioned symptoms,
many believe that normal or even superior reading individuals can’t be
dyslexics – despite the presence of typical dyslexic – related
difficulties with writing, grammar, spelling, math, memory, speech,
sense of direction, and time, etc.
As a result, typical dyslexics with normal or superior reading scores
are termed Learning Disabled – as if dyslexia and LD were separate and
Several approaches, supported by research, believe dyslexia to be a
syndrome of many and varied symptoms differing in intensity. And thus
some dyslexics will have severe reading, spelling and speech
difficulties while others will have major problems with only math,
memory and concentration.
What many don’t realise is that many of the symptoms understood to be part of this syndrome are linked to irregular functioning of the vestibular system (better known as the inner-ear). Not all Dyslexics are alike but many can be helped by activities aimed at improving vestibular functioning. This means that particular, coordinated, slow movements can help many children who are struggling at school.
There will be more information about this in following posts.
The fact that schools and higher learning institutions close for the summer holidays might not be based on neuroscience but is nevertheless wise. It has to do with the effect of heat on our brains.
I’m sure we can all relate to the experience of not being able to focus and cope with mental work in extreme heat. The same can be said for children, struggling in a hot classroom.
A recent study finds a link between heat and lower academic achievement. High school students who were tested during hotter years had lower scores compared to their test performance after a cooler year. Another study concerned university students who were given two tests a day of basic addition and subtraction, cognitive speed, memory, attention and processing speed for 12 consecutive days during a particularly hot spell. Those students who lived in air-conditioned buildings scored significantly higher than those who did not. Yet another researcherwrote that taking an exam on a day where the temperature reaches 32 degrees Centigrade leads to a 10.9% lower likelihood of passing a particular subject (e.g. Algebra).
So our hot South African summers cause some brain drain and possibly our youngsters could benefit from schools staying closed during January and February, the hottest months of the year. Of course, air conditioning seems to offset the damaging impacts of heat on academic achievement but we know how expensive it is to install and run air conditioners in schools. We also know that air conditioners release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which is not good for our already struggling environment.
But summer heat can cause physical problems for children as well. It’s important to remember children are at high risk for heat-related illnesses, as their bodies heat up 3-5 times faster than those of adults. When the weather is extremely hot and humid, the body’s ability to cool itself down is compromised, and both adults and children are at risk if the temperature rises above 32 degrees Centigrade.
Dehydration is a major concern and it should be remembered that often children don’t feel thirsty when they are engaging in physical activities out of doors.
- Before outdoor physical activities, children should drink freely.During activities, they should have water available and take a break to drink every 20 minutes.
- Sports practices and games played in the heat should be shortened and there should be more frequent water breaks.
- Clothing should be light-coloured and lightweight. Limit clothing to one layer of absorbent material to help the evaporation of sweat. If their shirts become sweaty, they should change to dry clothing.
- Children complaining of feeling dizzy, lightheaded or nauseous should be allowed to move into a cooler environment.
There is no doubt that heat and dehydration can make children sick. Apart from dehydration, children can also suffer from heat exhaustion, heat cramps and heat strokes.
Your child may not tell you if they’re feeling bad, so it’s critical to recognize the signs and symptoms of these heat-related illnesses in order to take proper action and prevent further injury.
If your child develops any of the following symptoms, it might be wise to call your pediatrician immediately:
- Feeling faint
- Extreme tiredness (e.g. unusually sleepy, drowsy or hard to arouse)
- Intense thirst
- Not urinating for many hours
- Breathing faster or deeper than normal
- Skin numbness or tingling
- Muscle aches
- Muscles spasms.
With the long summer holidays looming every closer, plan to protect your children from the heat by playing outside in the early mornings and late afternoons (apart from swimming). Children may become restless if kept indoors for too long so make sure you have entertainment planned in the form of indoor games and activities.
But don’t forget to limit the amount of screen time!
R. Jisung Park, Assistant Professor at the University of California, Los Angeles.
All movements and thinking activities that children engage in help to develop the network of brain cells that are so crucial to learning and coping in life. We can create new connections in our brains throughout our lives but during childhood this is crucial for their state of learning readiness and ability to meet academic demands.
The brain is composed of a left and right side – called right and left hemispheres. It may be that we develop a preference for using either side to function but rather than encourage a decided dominance of a particular hemisphere, it is far better to balance the brain. We need the specialised areas of both hemispheres to function optimally – especially in school. With this in mind, we should try hard to provide opportunities that will promote development of both brains in our children.
What kind of activities does your child gravitate towards? TV, computers, video games and texting will wire the brain in a certain way. Art, music, sport, messy play will result in other areas being wired. What is needed is a variety of activities to help the brain’s left and right sides develop equally and be able to communicate efficiently.
The left hemisphere predominates when we are using our right hands and right side of our bodies, speaking, reasoning, or working out a maths or science problem. You will be helping the development of this brain when you get your child involved with:
- You can play with numbers, for example having the child learn to count by jumping up and down a flight of steps; call out a number and ask the child to tell you what number comes before or after it; introduce shapes and have them cut out different paper shapes; teach quantity in the kitchen.
- As soon as a child is speaking his home language well, introduce a second language. Teaching songs, rhymes and simple phrases is a good beginning.
- Install a love of reading. Children simply must have stories read to them.
- Once children are older and can read, play a dictionary game: give them the first three letters of a word and have them find words with those letters.
- Play with science concepts. For example, ask children how water turns into ice and back again; what makes wood burn? What is wind? Where does our water come from? Explore the environment: have children draw everything they can find in the garden, including insects and discuss their discoveries with them.
- Introduce them to music: if at all possible, let them learn to play an instrument. Studies have shown that music appears to accelerate language development, speech and reading skills.
- If learning an instrument isn’t possible, at least play music in the home with chances to move to the rhythm, beat out the rhythm on homemade drums and learn the words of songs. Be sure to include a variety of music – including classical.
The right side of the brain is specialised for control over left-hand and left side of the body, imagination, intuition, understanding the ‘big picture’ and more. Activities that encourage right brain development include:
- Telling stories and hearing stories read or told out loud.Understanding content through tone of voice and speech inflection is an important part of comprehension.
- Dealing with feelings: talking about the child’s own feelings and how others feel; watch a film together and talk about how events affected the child and you. Ask for suggestions how the story or ending could be changed and how that would affect feelings.
- Encourage children to engage in fantasy play. Playing make believe is a very important part of childhood.
- Study the faces of other people and try to guess their feelings. This can be done with ‘emoticons’ too, but looking at people when you are out and about can be fun and enlightening too.
- Use music to discuss feelings. How do different pieces of music affect feelings?
- Use art to express feelings: blank pieces of paper with paint or crayons stimulates imagination and the release of emotions. Don’t overdo the colouring-books.
This list provides some examples of the many activities that can be used to help whole-brain development. Spend some time on the internet to lengthen the list, and then enjoy the time spent with your child. Your brain will benefit too!